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Technological potential of small scale Ice thermal storage based air conditioning system in the generation phase for hotel & entertainment industry of Sri Lanka

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dc.contributor.advisor Attalage R Godamunne RWSMS 2020 2020 2020
dc.description.abstract Demand for electricity during a day, varies with the time due to various factors. Electricity demand of Sri Lanka for a typical day could easily be divided into three main categories. One segment characterizes a very high sudden demand increase during later in the evening, and sharp decrease of the demand during the mid night until the next day early morning time and average daily demand during the day time. As a remedial action in facing this change of demand, electricity service providers generally encourage users to reduce the demand through different measures and also shift their consumption during the high demand period to the low demand period. This is achieved by introducing different electricity tariffs based on the time of the day. As Air Conditioning systems demand considerable percentage of building electricity consumption, Cold Thermal Storage technologies is an ideal candidate for electrical load shifting applications of buildings. This study explores the technological feasibilities and also reviews the engineering economics of building small scale Ice Thermal Storage based air conditioning system in the generation phase which has average capacity of 32 Ton Hours. The development of small scale thermal storage based air conditioning system is progressed through a detailed research work and final design was reviewed of its economic feasibility to be used for hotel rooms & 100 capacity movie theaters under Hotel & General electricity tariff structures respectively. This study further investigates in particular the ice building process in a water filled, limited length horizontal rectangular enclosure with the constant temperature glycol circulation system at the top & bottom surfaces. The rates of ice building on top and bottom surfaces were mathematically modeled based on the equations published by Et al. P. Bhargavi & Et al. Liang Yong. The dimensionless equations were then converted to dimensional and set of equations were derived to find the ice thickness Vs time, temperature profile along ice thickness at a given time and several other associated parameters necessary to calculate the heat transfer during water freezing. The goal was to find the maximum achievable ice thickness during 6.5 hours period and total energy extracted by the glycol circuit. Three glycol temperatures of -12C, -6C and -3C were considered and 3 data sets were built. By considering a given glycol temperature, the built ice thickness was calculated and tabulated for 6.5 hours period at 20 minutes intervals. Thereafter the temperature profile along the ice thickness was tabulated during the end of each 60 minutes (1 hour) up to 6 hours and final data set was tabulated at the end of 6.5 hours. Here the temperature profile was estimated at every 2.5 mm distance along the built ice thickness. The width & length of water filled rectangle enclosure was selected as 10 cm & 110 cm respectively and this unit is called Primary Ice Making Chamber. The height was selected based on the final built ice thickness which was decided based on temperature v of glycol circuit. Finally relevant total energy extracted and final ice volumes were calculated for 3 different glycol circuit temperatures. In order to achieve the uniform ice thickness inside the Primary Ice Making Chamber, counter flow arrangement was introduced to glycol circuits placed at top & bottom surfaces of it. Still there is a drop of final ice volume. The volume reduction was calculated and relevant total energy removed by the glycol circuit was calculated. This was repeated for 3 different glycol temperatures. The glycol circuits were designed and relevant flow rates were calculated to maintain the heat transfers for 3 designs scenarios. Finally 3 ice thermal storage designs were evaluated. The cost of manufacturing was calculated for all three designs. The operational cost was calculated for all three cases under hotel tariff for using at hotels and under general tariff for using at Movie Theaters. It was revealed that the price of chiller contributes to more than 50% of the cost of manufacturing for all 3 designs. The payback period for the use case of hotel rooms under hotel tariff was found to be 4.3 years. The use case of Movie Theater has a 3.4 years payback period. This clearly indicates the further possibility of reducing the payback period under both cases used by cutting down the capital cost of chillers. When these units are manufactured on an industrial scale, it would further reduce the cost of chillers by volume discounts. This study makes a clear indication that small scale ice thermal storage systems are economically feasible. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.subject MECHANICAL ENGINEERING-Dissertations en_US
dc.subject BUILDING SERVICES ENGINEERING-Dissertations en_US
dc.subject ICE-Manufacture en_US
dc.subject HOTELS AND MOTELS-Electric Power Utilization en_US
dc.subject THEATER-Electric Power Utilization en_US
dc.title Technological potential of small scale Ice thermal storage based air conditioning system in the generation phase for hotel & entertainment industry of Sri Lanka en_US
dc.type Thesis-Abstract en_US
dc.identifier.faculty Engineering en_US MSc in Building Services Engineering en_US
dc.identifier.department Department of Mechanical Engineering en_US 2020
dc.identifier.accno TH4235 en_US

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